Fernald State School

1848- 2014

Waltham, Massachusetts

History

The Massachusetts School for the Feeble-Minded was the first publicly supported institution in the Western Hemisphere. First opened in 1848 in South Boston, Massachusetts. The school was founded to help the intellectual with disabilities. The first schools of its kind quickly took off under the strong leadership of Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe and Dr. Edward Jarvis. With the success of the school numbers started to increase over the years and a new permanent locations was needed. The town chosen for the new school would be 11 miles out side of Boston in the town of Waltham, Massachusetts. The school’s design was a cottage style system like the Lyman School for Boys. The buildings would be individual, instead of connected for an open campus feel. Some had tunnels to connect certain buildings to others that needed access in the winter months.In 1884 the new school opened under the supervision of the third superintendent Walter E. Fernald. With his ideas on how to cure feeble-minded children, the public was onboard. The education of the school would later be viewed as a model for the eugenics movement in America in the 1920s. The study believed that the possibility of improving the qualities of the human species, especially discouraging reproduction of persons having genetic defeats and encouraging reproduction of persons with inheritable desirable traits. The movement was so influential that Hitler took this idea and brought it to Germany. The school would test children all over the state using an “IQ” test. Most of the children that were targeted were from broken homes, the poor, minorities, foster kids, and families who couldn’t take care of their children. It was believed that more than half the children mostly boys at the school were fully capable of living a normal life without the assistance of the states help. But the school needed able fit boys and girls to help run the institution with daily task for it to succeed. A year after the death of superintendent Walter E. Fernald the school would be renamed in his honor in 1925.

The institution grew to have over 72 buildings on 196 acres of land. Fernald was getting more and more popular by the 1940s and was viewed as a model for education in the field of mental retardation. Around that time an experiment was being done by MIT and sponsored but the Quaker Oats company. This experiment was called the “Science Club”. The institution would put small amounts of radiation in the patients oatmeal and record the amount of toxic poison that would be absorb into their bodies over a period of time.  It was easy to find kids that would corporate. Most of the children at Fernald hated the sigma of being in a state school so anything that could make them feel smart and normal was their top priority. Being part of the “Science Club” made special. The kids were rewarded with extra food portions, parties and even baseball games to see the Red Sox. The “Science Club” lasted for 7 years (1946 - 1953)

At the peak of the institution the population reached 2,500 patients. Like most institutions at the time, lack of staff, over crowding, defunding and maintenance repairs to the buildings, the facility fell into horrific conditions. A news reporter snuck into the Siquen Building that stored the most disable of the kids to report how unimaginable the conditions were. Publicizing the findings at Fernald and how much improvements, funding and specialized care was needed. In 1986 Department of Mental Retardation was created. 
By the 2000s, about 300 patients were living on the property. Most of these people needed assistance with every day life. In 2003 Governor Mitt Romney had announced that by the year 2007 Fernald would be closed and the land sold to investors. Local unions and families fought to keep the Fernald School from closing and got an appeal from Judge Tauro to postpone the closing. 

Fernald remained opened until 2007 when the new Governor Deval Patrick over turned the appeal and continued the closure. He state that Fernald would be to expensive to operate and equal or better care for the remaining patents would be given at another facility. They started to decommission most of the buildings and down size the campus to what was needed. Six years later in 2013 only 13 residents resided at the Fernald School, most have been there their whole life. One of the the 13 is a woman who was sent to Fernald at the age of 19 and was now the oldest resident at 84.  The last resident was moved to a new state operated system on November 13, 2014. The Fernald school closed after 166 years of service. 

Photography